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Intro & Kāya section | Satipatthāna Sutta | Translation guide

Buddha Head SatipathānaThe Satipatthāna Sutta can be found in two forms:
Majjhima Nikaya 10 (MN 10), &
Digha Nikaya 22 (DN 22)

There are also, I believe, versions in the Chinese āgama:
Madhyama Āgama No. 26 &
Ekottarika Āgama 12.1

The term satipaṭṭhāna is a compound of sati, (mindfulness) and either paṭṭhāna, (foundation) or upaṭṭhāna, (presence). The compound term could thus be interpreted as sati-paṭṭhāna ("foundation of mindfulness" : preferred by Buddhaghosa's commentary) or sati-upaṭṭhāna, "presence of mindfulness". According to Anālayo, "presence of mindfulness," is a more etymologically correct (cf. smṛty-upasthāna in BHS).

Upaṭṭhāna is derived from the verb upaṭṭhāti (itself a variant of upatiṭṭhati), and literally means standing near, and by extension, attending on, serving. The word sati is a feminine action noun derived from the past participle of sarati the basic meaning of which is to remember. It is cognate with Vedic smṛti:memory, recognition, witness. Both the Sanskrit root smṛ and the term smṛti predate Buddhism. In the Ṛgveda, smṛ means to remember or thinking of, calling to mind & possibly 'to pay attention to'.

Anālayo has also written a detailed commentary to the satippatthāna sutta and I follow his general heading layout. Also see, A discussion on the Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasutta by Bhante Sujato

Please note, my following attempt at translation is for illustration and as such it is very literal and endeavours to remain true to the underlying grammar. And I haven't rendered much of the repetition.

Here is a brief Contents list for quick navigation:

Vedana & Citta sections of satipatthana sutta to be continues here...

Format of this translation

The format of the translation below is as follows, for each word:
  1. Satipatthāna Sutta text in Pali
  2. (class) Case, number, gender or person, number, tense [if a verb]
  3. Dictionary definition 
  4. Translation
Key to the abbreviations used in the 2nd row:

(class)
Case / person.
Number
gender / tense
intg = interrogative pronoun
dem = demonstrative pronoun
indef = indefinite pronoun
rel = relative pronoun
poss = possessive pronoun
pers = personal pronoun
pn = proper name
ind = indeclinable
adv = adverb
pa = possessive adjective
pp = past participle
prp = present participle
abs = gerund/absolutive
N = Nominative
V = Vocative
A = Accusative
D = Dative
G = Genitive
I = Instrumental
Ab = Ablative
L = Locative
s = single
p = plural
m = masculine
n = neuter
f = feminine
v: = verb
vb = verbal
3 rd = 3 rd person etc.
pi = present indicative
pass = passive
aor = aorist, [past]
fut = future
caus = causative

PED = Pali English Dictionary
(.) = implied from case/gender/person
[.] = my own addition
lit. = literally
fig. = figuratively.

Scholarly translations


Selected translations

evaṃ
me
sutaṃ
adv
poss D/G/I s 1 st
pp N/A s n
thus
my/mine, by me
heard
thus, (it was) heard by me

ekaṃ
samayaṃ 1
bhagavā
kurūsu
viharati
A s m/n/f
A s m
N s m
pn L s m
v 3 rd s pi
one
occasion
blessed one
(in) Kuru
(he) abides
(at) one occasion, the blessed one abides in Kuru 2 country,
1 Acc acting as adverb of time
2 can also be taken as plural 'amongst the Kurus'

kammāsadhammaṃ
nāma
kurūnaṃ
nigamo
pn A s m
adv
pn G p m
N s m
(at) Kammāsadamma
by name
(of) the Kurus
a market town
at a market town of the Kurus named Kammãsadhamma
Notice description moves from general to specific place

tatra
kho
bhagavā
bhikkhū
āmantesi
bhikkhavo ti.
adv
adv
N s m
N/A pl m
v 3 rd /2 nd s aor
V p m
there
indeed
blessed one
monks
(he) addressed
monks
there, the blessed one addressed the monks:
'Monks'

bhadante ti
te
bhikkhū
bhagavato
paccassosuṃ 1 .
V s m
N/A/D/G/I p m
N/A p m
D s m/n
v 3 rd p aor
venerable sir
they/them/those
monks
(to) the blessed one
(they) responded
'Venerable Sir',
those monks, to the blessed one they responded
1 aor plural of paṭissuṇāti : to assent, promise, agree; fig. they responded

bhagavā
etad+avoca
N s m
A s, v 3 rd s
blessed one
this, he said
the blessed one, this he said:

The Direct Path

ekāyano 1
ayaṃ
bhikkhave
maggo
sattānaṃ
visuddhiyā 2
adj N s m
N s m/f
V p m
N s m
D/G p m
I/D/G/Ab/L s f
singular goal
this
monks
path, way
to/of beings
splendour, purity
This one-going path, O monks, for the brightening of beings
1 eka+ayana lit. one-going. In the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, "ekayāna" is a metaphor for a spiritual journey. Its use in the pali nikaya also implies an inevitable endpoint rather than a sense of exclusive, unique method.
2 vi+suddhi lit brightness, splendour; fig. purity, purify ie to refine

soka+pariddavānaṃ
sam+atikkamāya
dukkha+domanassānaṃ
atthaṅ+gamāya 1
D/G p m
D s m
D/G p n
D s m
for grief, wailing
for total passing beyond
for pain unhappiness
for setting
For totally passing beyond wailing & grief, for the laying to rest of distresses & discontents
1 attha+gama lit. going home, going to rest, fig. the setting of the sun

ñāyassa 1
adhigamāya ,
nibbānassa
sacchi 2 +kiriyāya,
D/G s m
D s m
D/G s n
I/D/Ab/G/L s f
for principle
for attainment
of exhaustion
to experience for oneself
For attaining the principle, For witnessing the truth of Nibbāna
1 ñāya defined in SN 12.41, SN 55.28:
And what noble principle [ñāyo ] by insight is well seen, well penetrated
Here, the master of the house, the noble student, thoroughly investigates down to the initial genesis [yoniso-manasi-karoti] the basis for arising [paṭiccasamuppāda] just so,
thus, this being, [then] this is; this occurs, this arises; thus, this not being, this is not; this expires, this dissipates.
 2 sa (one’s own) + acchi (eye); with one’s own eyes

yad+idaṃ
cattāro
sati 1 +upaṭṭhānā 2
ind
N p m
Ab s n
which, this [namely]
four
attendance to witnessing
That is the four attendances to witnessing.
1 from Vedic smṛti: memory, recognition, witness; the Sankrit root smṛ and the term smṛti predate Buddhism. In the ancient Ṛgveda, smṛ means "to remember" or "to keep in mind." & possibly 'to pay attention'
2 from upa + sthā : attendance, waiting on

Definition

katame
cattāro
intg N p m
N p m
Which four?

idha,
bhikkhave,
bhikkhu
kāye
kāya+anupassī 1
viharati,
ind
V p m
N s m
L s m
prp N s m/n
v: 3 rd s
here
monks
a monk
in body
body observing
he abides
Right Here, O Monks, a monk dwells in the body, observing the body 
1 from anupassin, a verbal adjective similar to a present participle. Here, anupassī is not functioning as the main verb which is to dwell/abide, but as an adjective used to modify another noun. The word combined with anupassī is the characteristic that is contemplated (the body), and the word in the locative case is the domain within which the aspect is contemplated. According to Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi , strictly speaking, kāyānupassī does not actually mean "contemplating the body," but a "body-contemplator." Thus a literal translation of the phrase would be: "He dwells in the body as a body-contemplator." – Though this seems to be wrong . The -in suffix can be added to nouns or adjectives, in which case it is possessive; or to verbal roots, in which case it forms verbal adjectives similar to present participles. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu states:
anupassī nominative from anupassin. The suffix -in here is identical in form, but distinct from, the possessive suffix -in (seen, for instance, in ātāpī which follows on the next line, meaning having or possessing ardour), but carries the meaning of a present participle ie. contemplating .
ātāpī 1
sampajāno
satimā 2 ,
vineyya 3
loke
abhijjhā+domanassaṃ
pa Nsm
N s m
pa N sm
vb: 3 rd abs
L s m
N/A s n/f 
ardent
closely knowing
watchful
(having) removed
(in) the world
wanting & discontent
keen, fully aware, attentive; having removed wanting & discontent [from] his world
1 ātāpin from ātāpeti : glow, heat; ascetic torment, fig. possessing ardour
2 from satimant, possessive adjective : possessing attention
3 There's still some controversy over how to interpret the vineyya in "vineyya loke abhijjhadomanassam". It's standard to translate it as "having given up” taking vineyya's absolutive form (vine+iya->vineyya). But could also be taken in an infinitive sense "what one has to do in order to remove"… Ānandajoti Bhikkhu states vineyya is an absolutive (comm: vineyyā ti ... vinayitvā), which is an non-finite verbal form syntactically dependent on a finite verb (here viharati). An absolutive signifies that the action is completed (perfected) in the past before the time of the finite verb.
I note that the early Upanishads often state renunciation is a perquisite to training.

vedanāsu 1
vedana+anupassī
viharati
L p f
N s m/n
v: 3 rd s
in sensations,
affect
affect observing
he abides
He dwells in affect, observing affect...
1 vedanā translated here as affect: the emotional tone of a stimuli, what something feels like - pleasant, unpleasant etc.

Repeat of the line above..

citte 1
citta+anupassī
viharati
dhammesu 2
dhamma+anupassī
viharati
L s n
N s m/n
v: 3 rd s
L p m
N s m/n/f
v: 3 rd s
in mind/heart,
[conation]
mind observing
(he) abides
phenomena
phenomena observing
(he) abides
He dwells in conation observing conation
...
He dwells in phenomena observing phenomena
...
1 citta translated as conation , the emotive, volitional aspect of mind, that which drives us to activity - motivates
2 dhamma: taken as the technical object of manas, what is known ie. phenomena: objects of perception, all that arises

Repeat of the line above..

The Body

Breathing

kathañ+ca,
bhikkhave,
bhikkhu
kāye
kāyānupassī
viharati
rel. adv
V
N s m
L s m
N s m/n
v: 3 rd s
How, and
monks
a monk
in body
body observing
(he) abides
And how, O Monks, (does) a monk dwell in body, observing the body?

idha
bhikkhave
bhikkhu
arañña+gato 1
rukkha+mūla+gato
suñña+agāra+gato
ind
V
N s m
pp N s m
ind
pp N s m
ind
pp N s m
ind
here
monks
a monk
forest gone
or
tree base gone
or
empty house gone
or
Here, O Monks, a monk, gone to a forest, or gone to a tree root, or gone to an empty house
1 gata pp of gacchati lit. gone, went. & in compounds can mean 'gone to' ~ 'in a state of'... 'being in'...

nisīdati,
pallaṅkaṃ
ābhujitvā 1 ,
ujuṃ
kāyaṃ
paṇidhāya 2 ,
v: 3 rd s pi
A s m
vb abs aor
adv
A s m
vb abs
(he) sits down
legs folded
(having) bent
upright
body
having directed
he sits down, having bent & folded legs, having directed the body upright
1 abs form of the aor. of ābhujati
2 abs of paṇidahati : to apply, direct, intend fig. holding

pari+mukhaṃ 1
satiṃ
upaṭṭhapetvā 2
N/A s n
A s f
vb 3 rd caus abs
around the mouth
[mental] focus
(having) attend to
Having engaged one’s [mental] focus around the mouth
1 parimukhaṃ usually defined abstractly as ‘in front, or before’. More specifically: pari- is a prefix used to imply 'around, about, all over'; while mukhaṃ is lit. 'mouth', by extension 'face' and figuratively 'entrance' or 'front'. So 'around the mouth, all over the mouth, completely on the mouth, around the face, all over the face' etc. According to Thanissaro Bhikkhu however, in the Vinaya, it is used in a context (Cv.V.27.4) where it undoubtedly means the front of the chest. In Sanskrit pratimukha has many meanings, among which are 'reflection' and 'presence' as well as standing before the face.
2 abs of upaṭṭhapeti the causative of upatiṭṭhati : 'to cause to be waited on, stand close, attend.' lit. 'standing near, to serve'. Also related to upaṭṭhāka, an attendant

so
sato+va 1
assasati 2 ,
satova
passasati.
N s m
N s m
v: 3 rd s
N s m
v: 3 rd s
he
just observant
(he) exhales
just observant
(he) inhales
Just observant, he exhales, just observant, he inhales
1 sata pp.of sarati + va here an emphatic and can be rendered ‘just observant', ‘simply observant' or ‘truly observant'
2 seems to be a difference in dictionary definition as to which assasati or passasati means inhale or exhale. I follow PED. Note: in Indian philosophy, the breath, is a vital 'energy' originating in the body; rather than 'air' taken in from outside...

dīghaṃ
assasanto
dīghaṃ 1
assasāmī ti
pajānāti,
N s n (adv)
ind
prp N s m/n
N s n (adv)
v: 1 st s
v: 3 rd s
long
or
exhaling
I exhale long
(he) knows
Breathing out long, he knows ‘I breathe out long’;
1 neuter form used adverbially. Could also be rendered dīghaṃ deeply & rassaṃ shallowly

dīghaṃ
passasanto
dīghaṃ
passasāmī ti
pajānāti,
N s n (adv)
ind
prp N s m/n
N s n (adv)
v: 1 st s
v: 3 rd s
long
or
inhaling
I inhale long
(he) knows
or breathing in long, he knows ‘I breathe in long’;

rassaṃ
assasanto
rassaṃ
assasāmī ti
pajānāti,
N s n (adv)
ind
prp N s m/n
N s n (adv)
v: 1 st s
v: 3 rd s
short
or
exhaling
I exhale short
(he) knows
or breathing out short, he knows ‘I breathe out short’;

rassaṃ
passasanto
rassaṃ
passasāmī ti
pajānāti.
N s n (adv)
ind
prp N s m/n
N s n (adv)
v: 1 st s
v: 3 rd s
short
or
inhaling
I inhale short
(he) knows
or breathing in short, he knows ‘I breathe in short’;

sabba+kāya+paṭisaṃvedī 1
assasissāmī 2 ti
sikkhati
vb: N s m
v: 1st fut
v: 3 rd s
whole body experiencing
I will breathe out
(he) practice/trains
experiencing the whole body, 'I will breathe out’, he practices [thus]
...
experiencing the whole body, 'I will breathe in’, he practices [thus]
1 paṭisaṃvedī nominative of paṭisaṃvedin, rather than being a possessive noun it carries the meaning of a present participle 'experiencing'.
2 future 1 st person of assasati; a vowel proceeded by ‘ti often is lengthened

passambhayaṃ 1
kāya+saṅkhāraṃ 2
assasissāmī ti
sikkhati
prp N s
A s m
v: 1st fut
v: 3 rd s
quietening
bodily activity 
I will breathe out
(he) practice/trains
quietening [my] bodily activity, 'I will breathe out’, he practices [thus]
...
quietening [my] bodily activity, ‘I will breathe in’, he practices [thus]
1 According to PED passambhayaṃ is pres. participle of passambheti which is caus. of passambhati to calm, make quiet; the causative becomes a transitive verb thus: 'making something calm or quietening'.
2 According to context, saṅkhāra has different shades of meaning. As defined in MN 44: kāya-, vacī- and citta- saṅkhāra bodily activity = in-and-out-breathing; verbal activity = thought-conception and discursive thinking; mental-activity = feeling and perception

seyyathāpi 1 ,
bhikkhave,
dakkho
bhamakāro
bhamakāra+antevāsī
ind
V
N s m
N s m
ind
N s m
ind
Just as, though
monks
skillful
a turner
or
a turner apprentice
or
Just as though, O monks, a turner or a turner's apprentice
1 beginning of a simile.

dīghaṃ
añchanto 2
dīghaṃ
añchāmī ti
pajānāti,
N s n
(adv)
ind
prp N s m
N s n
(adv)
v: 1 st s
v: 3 rd s
long
or
turning
long
(I) turn
(he) knows
turning long, he knows 'I turn long'
2 prp of añchati : to pull or turn on a lathe

rassaṃ
añchanto
rassaṃ
añchāmī ti
pajānāti,
N s n
(adv)
ind
prp N s m
N s n
(adv)
v: 1 st s
v: 3 rd s
short
or
turning
short
(I) turn
(he) knows
or turning short, he knows 'I turn short'

evam+eva
kho,
bhikkhave,
bhikkhu
dīghaṃ
assasanto
dīghaṃ
assasāmī ti
pajānāti,
adv 3
ind
V
N s m
N s n
(adv)
ind
prp N s m/n
N s n
(adv)
v: 1 st s
v: 3 rd s
thus so
monks
a monk
long
or
inhaling
I inhale long
(he) knows
So too, O Monks, a monk, breathing in long, he knows ‘I breathe in long’;
3 final clause of simile. 'just as' -> 'so too';
Repeat of section start...


The Refrain

iti
ajjhattaṃ
kāye
kāyānupassī
viharati,
ind
adv
ind
L s m
vb: N s m
v: 3 rd s
thus
inwardly
or
(in) body
body observing
(he) abides
Thus, he abides in body observing the body inwardly

bahiddhā 1
kāye
kāyānupassī
viharati,
adv
ind
L s m
vb: N s m
v: 3 rd s
outwardly
or
(in) body
body observing
(he) abides
or he abides in body observing the body outwardly
1 quite possibly refers to the external bodies of others (cf. DN 18.26). And through considering the elements, makes no distinction between my body & another's body or even my body and externality.

ajjhatta+bahiddhā
kāye
kāyānupassī
viharati,
adverb
ind
L s m
vb: N s m
v: 3 rd s
inwardly & outwardly
or
(in) body
body observing
(he) abides
or he abides in body observing the body inwardly & outwardly

samudaya+dhamma+ānupassī
kāyasmiṃ 1
viharati
vb:
ind
L s m
v: 3 rd s
arising of phenomena observing
or
(in) body
(he) abides
or he dwells in body observing the upspring of phenomena
1 I note the change in Locative ending but have no explanation. -smiṃ borrowed from the pronominal declension; the same alternation occurs later with citte and cittasmiṁ.

vaya+dhamma+ānupassī
kāyasmiṃ
viharati,
vb:
ind
L s m
v: 3 rd s
decay of phenomena observing
or
(in) body
(he) abides
or he dwells in body observing the dissolving of phenomena
...
or he dwells in body observing the upspring and dissolving of phenomena

atthi
kāyo ti
panassa 1
sati
paccupaṭṭhitā 2
hoti.
N s m
ind
N s f
pp. N s f
v:3rd
is
body
or
but his
focus
stood up before
is
Or else, ‘the body is’ is stood up before his [mental] focus
1 appears to be ind. pana but + G s of ayam his
2 = paṭi+upaṭṭhitā = pp. of paccupaññhàti : to stand up before; 'to face'

yāva+d+eva 1
ñāṇa+mattāya 2
patissati 3 +mattāya
ind
pp D
pp D
just as far 
(for) a measure of insight
(for) a measure of the alighted witness
only so far as is sufficient for insight & attending.
1 yāva rel. adv. 'as far/much/many' + eva 'just so'
2 dative of matta = pp of majjati : a measure, the size of. Skt. mātra : the full or simple measure of anything, the one thing and no more; or possessing (only) as much as or no more than : sufficient
3 usually rendered synonymous with sati. pati- as a prefix means against or towards. But could also be aor of patati to fall on or alight on.

a+nissito 1
ca
viharati.
pp N s m
ind
v: 3 rd s
independent,
unsupported
and
(he) abides
he abides unsupported,
1 pp. of nissayati : to lean on, depend.

na
ca
kiñci
loke
upādiyati 1 .
indef
L,s,m
v 3 rd s
not
and
anything
in world
taking up
and not taking up anything in the [phenomenal] world
{ and taking up nothing in the [phenomenal] world }
1 upādiyati lit. taken up, seized, subsisting on (fuelled by) fig. to identify with;

evam+pi
kho,
bhikkhave,
bhikkhu
kāye
kāyānupassī
viharati.
ind
ind
V
N s m
L s m
vb: N s m
v: 3 rd s
thus so
indeed
O monks
a monk
(in) body
body observing
(he) abides
Just so, O monk, a monk abides in body observing body

Refrain Ends


Postures

puna
ca
paraṃ
bhikkhave
bhikkhu
gacchanto
gacchāmī ti
pajānāti
ind
ind
adv
V
N s m
prp N s m
ind
v: 1 st s
v: 3 rd s
again
and
further
monks
a monk
going
or
I go
(he) knows
Moreover, O monks, a monk walking, he knows ‘I walk’

ṭhito
ṭhito+amhī ti
pajānāti.
nisinno
nisinno+amhī ti
pajānāti.
pp N s m
ind
v: 1 st s
v: 3 rd s
pp N s m
ind
v: 1 st s
v: 3 rd s
stood
or
I am stood
(he) knows
seated
or
I am sat
(he) knows
or stood, he knows ‘I am stood’
or seated, he knows ‘I am seated’

sayāno
sayāno+amhī ti
pajānāti.
prp N s m
ind
v: 1 st s
v: 3 rd s
lying down
or
I am lying down
(he) knows
or lying down, he knows ‘I am lying down’ 1
1 The grammar of this section is asymmetric; gacchanto and sayāno are both present participles, while ṭhito & nisinno are both past participles.

yathā yathā 1
panassa
kāyo
paṇihito 2
hoti
tathā tathā
naṃ
pajānāti.
adv
ind
N s m
pp. N s m
v:3rd
adv
A s
v: 3 rd s
like like
or
but, of this/his
body
applied, directed
is
so, so
this
(he) knows
or else however his body is applied, likewise this he knows
1 The duplication of the adverb gives it a distributive sense, like+like = in whatever way. 
2 pp. of paṇidahati : to apply, direct, intend

Repeat of Refrain


Activities

puna
ca
paraṃ
bhikkhave
bhikkhu
abhikkante 1
paṭikkante 2
sampajāna+kārī 3
hoti
ind
ind
adv
V
N s m
pp L s m
pp L s m
N s m
v:3 rd
again
and
further
monks
a monk
(in) gone forwards
gone back
close knowing,
a doer of
is
Furthermore, O monks, a monk when gone forwards, when gone back 4 , he is a close-knower
1 L of pp. of abhikkamati, here Locative in time, 'when gone forwards' see also note 4
2 L of pp. of pañikkamati
3 : acting; compounds ending with derivatives of kar, ‘to do’, can form 'agent nouns', a doer of...
4 all the following clauses display a possible locative absolute construction. They always involves a participle and a noun, pronoun or phrase all in the same case, gender & number. The distinguishing feature is that the agent of the participle is non-specific or different from the agent of the main clause. The clause then looses its normal case based meaning and often takes on the sense of 'despite of...' or simply 'when...'

ālokite 1
vilokite 2
sampajānakārī
hoti.
sammiñjite 3
pasārite 4
sampajānakārī
hoti.
pp L s m
pp L sm
ag N s m
v: 3 rd
pp L s m
pp L s m
ag N s m
v:3 rd
looking
forwards
looking
behind
close-knower
is
bent back
stretched out
close-knower
is
when looking ahead [or] behind
he is a close-knower
when bent [or] stretched out
he is a close-knower
1 L of pp of āloketi : looking forward
2 L of pp of viloketi : looking back
3 L of pp of sammiñjati : bent back
4 L of pp of pasāreti : stretched out

saṅghāṭi+patta+cīvara+dhāraṇe 1
sampajānakārī
hoti.
pp L s m
ag N s m
v: 3 rd
(in) outer robe + alms bowl + robes + maintaining
close-knower
is
when maintaining his robes and alms-bowl he is a close-knower
1 ādāya, is the usual term for wearing/bearing but dhāraṇa could be wearing/bearing or maintaining the robes & bowl

asite 1
pīte 2
khāyite 3
sāyite 4
sampajānakārī
hoti.
pp L s m
pp L s m
pp L sm
pp L sm
ag N s m
v: 3 rd s
(in) having eaten
having drunk
chewed
tasted
close-knower
is
when having eaten, drunk, consumed & savoured, he is a close-knower
1 L pp. of asnāti : when eaten
2 L pp. of pivati : having drunk
3 variant khādita ; L pp of khādati : chewed; fig. consumed
4 L pp. of sāyati : savoured

uccāra+passāva+kamme
sampajānakārī
hoti.
ag N s m
v: 3 rd
(in) feaces+urine+doing
close-knower
is
in defecating & urinating, he is a close-knower

gate
ṭhite
nisinne
sutte
jāgarite
bhāsite
tuṇhībhāve
sampajānakārī
hoti.
pp L s m
pp L s m
pp L s m
pp L s m
pp L s m
pp L s m
L s m
ag N s m
v: 3 rd s
(in) gone
stood
seated
dormant
awake
spoke
being silent
close-knower
is
when 1 in motion, stood, seated, dormant, awake, speaking, being silent, he is a close-knower
1 again a possible locative absolute construction. They always involves a participle and a noun, pronoun or phrase all in the same case, gender & number. The distinguishing feature is that the agent of the participle is non-specific or different from the agent of the main clause. The clause then looses its normal case based meaning and often takes on the sense of 'despite of...' or simply 'when...'

Repeat of Refrain


Anatomical Parts

puna
ca
paraṃ
bhikkhave
ind
ind
adv
V
again
and
further
monks
Furthermore, O monks,

bhikkhu
ima+m+eva
kāyaṃ
uddhaṃ
pādatalā
adho
kesa+matthakā
N s m
ind
A s m
adv
Ab s n
adv
Ab s m
a monk
this very body
above, raise
(from) the sole of the foot
under, below
(from) the hair at the top of the head
a monk, raising from the sole of the foot [and] down from the hair at the top of the head,

taca+pariyantaṃ
pūraṃ
nānappakārassa
asucino
paccavekkhati
A s m
A s m
G s m
G s m
v: 3 rd s
limit of the skin/hide
full
of many kinds
impure/dirt
looks upon
looks upon this very body [as] full of many kinds of dirt, enclosed by skin

atthi
imasmiṃ
kāye
kesā
lomā 1
nakhā
dantā
taco
maṃsaṃ
nahāru
v: 3 rd s
dem L s
L s m
N p m
N p n
N p m
N p n
N sm
N s n
N s m
there is
(in) this
body
hairs of
the head
hairs of
the body
nails
teeth
skin
flesh
muscle
There is in this body: the hairs of the head [&] the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, muscle
1 loma & danta are neuter nouns and appear as sing. ablative, though an older form allows plural. See Duroiselle section 123

aṭṭhi
aṭṭhi+miñjaṃ
vakkaṃ
hadayaṃ
yakanaṃ
kilomakaṃ
pīhakaṃ
papphāsaṃ
N s n
N s n
N s n
N s n
N s n
N s n
N s n
N s n
bone
bone marrow
kidneys
heart
liver
the pleura
spleen
lungs

antaṃ
antaguṇaṃ
udariyaṃ
karīsaṃ
pittaṃ
semhaṃ
pubbo
lohitaṃ
N s n
N s n
N s n
N s n
N s n
N s n
N s m
N s n
colon
intestinal tract
stomach
faeces
bile
phlegm
pus
blood

sedo
medo
assu
vasā
kheḷo
siṅghāṇikā
lasikā
muttan ti.
N s m
N s m
N s n
N s f
N s m
N s f
N s f
N s n
sweat
lymph
tears
fat
saliva
snot
synovial fluid
urine

seyyathāpi
bhikkhave
ubhato+mukhā
mutolī 1
pūrā
nānāvihitassa
dhaññassa
ind
V
Ab s m
Ab s m
G s m
G s n
just as though
O monks
double mouthed
provision-bag
(from) full
(of) various
grains,
Just as though, O Monks, from a double mouthed provision-bag full of various grains
1 variant spelling putoḷī; of uncertain meaning; possibly a distortion of puṭosā meaning provision bag or sack

tam+enaṃ
cakkhumā
puriso
muñcitvā
paccavekkheyya:
pa: N s m
N s m
vb: abs
v: 3 rd s opt
he/it, this
having eyes
a man
(having) loosed
(were) to look upon
[and] this man endowed with eyes, having loosed, were to investigate it [so] 

ime
sālī
ime
vīhī
ime
muggā
dem N p
N p m
dem N p
N p m
dem N p
N p m
these
fine rices
these
paddy rices
these
peas
these (are) fine rices, these (are) paddy rices, these (are) peas
Nominative copulas

ime
māsā
ime
tilā
ime
taṇḍulā ti
dem N p
N p m
dem N p
N p m
dem N p
N p n
these
beans
these
sesame seeds
these
husked rice
these (are) beans, these (are) sesame seeds, these (are) husked rices

Repeat of section start...
Repeat of Refrain


Elements

puna
ca
paraṃ
bhikkhave
ind
ind
adv
V
again
and
further
monks
Furthermore, O monks,

bhikkhu
imameva
kāyaṃ
yathā+ṭhitaṃ
yathā+paṇihitaṃ
dhātu+so 1
paccavekkhati:
N s m
ind
A s m
A s
A s
Ab N s m
v: 3 rd s
A monk
this very body
however
stood
however applied, directed
(in terms of) nature
looks upon
A monk looks upon this very body however stood or disposed in terms of the constituents:
1 According to Wijesekera’s Syntax (§133 c.) the -so ending in dhātuso is an old adverbial form meaning ' in terms of...'

atthi
imasmiṃ
kāye
paṭhavī+dhātu 1
āpo+dhātu 2
tejo+dhātu 3
vāyo+dhātūti 4
v: 3 rd s
dem L s
L s m
N s f
N s f
N s f
N s f
there is
(in) this
body
earth constituent
water constituent
heat constituent
wind constituent
there is in this body:
the earth constituent, water constituent, heat constituent [&] wind constituent
1 MN140: And what, monk, is the earth constituent? The earth constituent may be internal or may be external. And what, monk, is the internal earth constituent? Whatever is inside, in oneself, that is hard or has become solid, and is identified with… Now, that which is the internal earth constituent, and that which is the external earth constituent, is only the earth constituent: This is not mine, I am not this, this is not my self, like this it ought to be seen, as it really is, with right wisdom. Having seen it like this, as it really is, with right wisdom, one loses interest in the earth constituent, one detaches the mind from the earth constituent.
2 MN140 as above but: Whatever is inside, in oneself, that is liquid or has become liquid, and is identified with…
3 MN140 as above but: Whatever is inside, in oneself, that is hot or has become heated, and is identified with.. that by which one is heated/irritated, by which one digests/grows old, by which one is burnt, by which, what is eaten, drunk, chewed, and tasted, gets thoroughly digested…
4 MN140 as above but: Whatever is inside, in oneself, that is wind or has become wind, and is identified with... winds that go up, winds that go down, winds in the bowels, winds in the belly, winds that go through the limbs, in-breath, out-breath..

seyyathāpi
bhikkhave
dakkho
goghātako
goghātako+antevāsī
ind
V
N s m
N s m
ind
ind
Just as, though
O monks
skilled
butcher
or
butcher's apprentice
or
Just as, though, O monks,
a skilled butcher or butcher's apprentice,

gāviṃ
vadhitvā
cātu+mahāpathe
bilaso
vibhajitvā
nisinno
assa,
A s f
vb: abs
L s m
adv
vb: abs
pp N s m
v: 3 rd s opt
a cow
(having) killed
(at) four great roads,
in portions
(having) dismember
sat down
(he) may
having killed a cow were to sit down at a meeting of four great ways 1 [&] butcher it into portions
1 Cātummahāpathe lit: (at) Four great roads; fig. at a crossroads. This could be a metaphor for the body, being dissected into the four great constituents

Even so O monks... Repeat of section start...

Repeat of Refrain


Corpse in Decay

puna
ca
paraṃ
bhikkhave
ind
ind
adv
V
again
and
further
monks
Furthermore, O monks,

bhikkhu
seyyathāpi
passeyya
sarīraṃ 1
sīvathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ
N s m
ind
v: 3 rd s opt
A s n
I/D/Ab/G/L s f
pp A s
a monk
just as though
may see
a corpse
charnel ground
thrown out
just as though, a monk may see a corpse discarded in charnel ground
1 from Vedic śarīra : the physical body, lit sheath, covering

ekāha+mataṃ
dvīhamataṃ
tīhamataṃ
A s n
ind
A s n
ind
A s n
ind
one day dead
or
two days dead
or
three days dead

uddhumātakaṃ
vinīlakaṃ
vipubbaka+jātaṃ,
A s
A
A s n
bloated
blue coloured
turning to pus

so
imameva
kāyaṃ
upasaṃharati
per N s m
ind
A s m
v: 3 rd s
he
this very
body
focuses
He focuses on this very body

ayam+pi
kho
kāyo
evaṃ+dhammo
evam+bhāvī 1
evam+anatīto 2 ti.
ind
ind
N s m
adv + N s m
adv + N s
adv + pp N s
even this
indeed
body
just such a nature
just such an
inevitability
in this way not-exempt
indeed, even this body (has) just such a nature, just such an inevitability, (of this) not exempt
1 possessive suffix, not the participle suffix
2 an+atīto; atīto lit 'to pass by', fig 'the past or passed away'; so negated, not passed by : unsurpassed or maybe exempt

Repeat of Refrain


Repeat of intro:
Furthermore, O monks, just as though, a monk may see a corpse discarded in a charnel ground...

kākehi
khajjamānaṃ 1
kulalehi
khajjamānaṃ
gijjhehi
khajjamānaṃ
I p m
ind
prp A s pass
I p m
ind
prp A s pass
I p m
ind
prp A s pass
(by) crows
or
being eaten
(by) hawks
or
being eaten
(by) vultures
or
being eaten
being eaten by crows, by hawks, by vultures,
1 khaj + ya pass. of khādati + prp ending -mānaṃ. It is hard to render passive, pres. participles as the passive voice is always denoted by past participles in English. but can be approximated by use of a present auxillary verb: 'being eaten'

kaṅkehi
khajjamānaṃ
sunakhehi
khajjamānaṃ
kaṅkehi
khajjamānaṃ
I p m
ind
prp A s pass
I p m
ind
prp A s pass
I p m
ind
prp A s pass
(by) herons
or
being eaten
(by) dogs
or
being eaten
(by) herons
or
being eaten

dīpīhi
khajjamānaṃ
siṅgālehi
khajjamānaṃ
vividhehi
pāṇakajātehi
khajjamānaṃ
I p m
ind
prp A s pass
I p m
ind
prp A s pass
I p m
ind
I p m
prp A s pass
(by) tigers
or
being eaten
(by) jackals
or
being eaten
(by) various
or
arisen creatures
being eaten

Repeat of conclusion:
He focuses on this very body, 'indeed, even this body (has) just such a nature, just such an inevitability, (of this) not exempt'

Repeat of Refrain


Repeat of Intro:
Furthermore, O monks, just as though, a monk may see a corpse discarded in a charnel ground...

aṭṭhika+saṅkhalikaṃ
sa+maṃsa+lohitaṃ
nhāru+sambandhaṃ
A s f
A s n
A s m
chain of bones
with flesh & blood
tied by sinew
a chain of bones, with flesh & blood, tied by sinew

Repeat of conclusion:
He focuses on this very body, 'indeed, even this body (has) just such a nature, just such an inevitability, (of this) not exempt'

Repeat of Refrain


Repeat of Intro:
Furthermore, O monks, just as though, a monk may see a corpse discarded in a charnel ground...

aṭṭhikasaṅkhalikaṃ
ni+maṃsa+lohita+makkhitaṃ
nhāru+sambandhaṃ
A s f
A s m
a chain of bones
lacking flesh, blood smeared
tied by sinew

Repeat of conclusion:
He focuses on this very body, 'indeed, even this body (has) just such a nature, just such an inevitability, (of this) not exempt'

Repeat of Refrain


Repeat of Intro:
Furthermore, O monks, just as though, a monk may see a corpse discarded in a charnel ground...

aṭṭhikasaṅkhalikaṃ
apagata+maṃsa+lohitaṃ
nhāru+sambandhaṃ
A s f
A s n
A s m
chain of bones
stripped of flesh & blood
tied by sinew
Repeat of conclusion:
He focuses on this very body, 'indeed, even this body (has) just such a nature, just such an inevitability,(of this) not exempt'

Repeat of Refrain


Repeat of Intro:
Furthermore, O monks, just as though, a monk may see a corpse discarded in a charnel ground...

aṭṭhikāni
apagata+sambandhāni
disā
vidisā
vikkhittāni,
A p n
A p m
A p f
A p f
pp A p n
bones
connection gone
directions
in between directions
scattered
bones, disconnected, scattered [to all] directions

aññena 1
hattha+aṭṭhikaṃ
aññena
pādaṭṭhikaṃ
aññena
gopphakaṭṭhikaṃ
aññena
jaṅghaṭṭhikaṃ
I s m
A s n
I s m
A s n
I s m
A s n
I s m
A s n
(with)
here
a bone of
a hand
(with)
there
a bone of
a foot
(with)
here
an ankle
(with)
there
a shin bone
1 lists demarcated by añña can take the form 'this one . . . that one'; but also could meaning 'recognising'

aññena
ūruṭṭhikaṃ
aññena
kaṭiṭṭhikaṃ
aññena
phāsukaṭṭhikaṃ
aññena
piṭṭhiṭṭhikaṃ
I s m
A s n
I s m
A s n
I s m
A s n
I s m
A s n
(with)
here
a thigh bone
(with)
there
a hip bone
(with)
here
a rib bone
(with)
there
a spine

aññena
khandhaṭṭhikaṃ
aññena
gīvaṭṭhikaṃ
aññena
hanukaṭṭhikaṃ
aññena
dantaṭṭhikaṃ
I s m
A s n
I s m
A s n
I s m
A s n
I s m
A s n
(with)
here
a shoulder bone
(with)
there
a bone of
the neck
(with)
here
a jaw bone
(with)
there
a tooth

aññena
sīsakaṭāhaṃ.
I s m
A s n
(with)
here
a skull

Note: There are many variations of this list given in the various editions.

Repeat of conclusion:
He focuses on this very body, 'indeed, even this body (has) just such a nature, just such an inevitability, (of this) not exempt'

Repeat of Refrain


Repeat of Intro:
Furthermore, O monks, just as though, a monk may see a corpse discarded in a charnel ground...

aṭṭhikāni
setāni
saṅkha+vaṇṇa+paṭibhāgāni
A p n
A p n
A p n
bones
white
shells colour resembling
bones, white, resembling the colour of shells
Repeat of conclusion:
He focuses on this very body, 'indeed, even this body (has) just such a nature, just such an inevitability, (of this) not exempt'

Repeat of Refrain


Repeat of Intro:
Furthermore, O monks, just as though, a monk may see a corpse discarded in a charnel ground...

aṭṭhikāni
puñjakitāni
terovassikāni
A p n
A p n
A p n
bones
dusty heap
over a year old
bones, piled in a dusty heap, over a year old

Repeat of conclusion:
He focuses on this very body, 'indeed, even this body (has) just such a nature, just such an inevitability, (of this) not exempt'

Repeat of Refrain


Repeat of Intro:
Furthermore, O monks, just as though, a monk may see a corpse discarded in a charnel ground...

aṭṭhikāni
pūtīni
cuṇṇakajātāni
A p n
A p n
A p n
bones
rotten
reduced to power
bones, rotted down to powder

Repeat of conclusion:
He focuses on this very body, 'indeed, even this body (has) just such a nature, just such an inevitability, (of this) not exempt'

Repeat of Refrain



End of section on the Body



Vedana & Citta sections of satipatthana sutta to be continued in the next post...

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